French-born American astronomer whose survey of bright,
relatively nearby galaxies led to the discovery of the Local Supercluster.
In his influential Physics of the Planet Mars (1954) he adopted a cautious
position on the question of Martian life, arguing that while low forms
of vegetation remained a possibility (see Mars, vegetation on), the
"overwhelming majority" of terrestrial organisms would not
be able to survive there. However, he pointed out that a second school
of thought in the 1950s was more optimistic and emphasized the adaptability
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